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Ngaji Bareng Kyai Pamungkas

Ngaji Bareng Kyai Pamungkas: TAKDIR MENURUT KAUM SUFI

Ngaji Bareng Kyai Pamungkas:
Takdir Menurut Kaum Sufia

Takdir adalah sesuatu ketentuan dari Allah yang tak bisa ditolak datangnya pun tak pernah dapat diduga. Kemudian….

Bagi manusia, takdir memang merupakan suatu misteri. Orang bahkan tak pernah tahu kapan, di mana dan pada saat apa takdir itu akan datang. Dan sebelum membahasnya lebih jauh lagi, maka, ada baiknya kita menelaah suatu kisah yang mungkin bisa menjadi bahan renungan bagi pembaca sekalian. Hatta, ada seorang murid yang bertanya kepada gurunya. “Guru, apakah yang dimaksud dengan takdir?”

Sesaat sang guru terdiam. Tiba-tiba, tanpa terduga ia langsung menampar pipi sang murid dengan keras.

“Guru boleh tidak senang dengan pertanyaan saya, tetapi janganlah sekali-kali menampar,” rutuk sang murid sambil memegangi pipinya yag memerah.

Sang guru kembali tersenyum. “Sakit?” Tanyanya.

“Tentu,” jawab sang murid dengan ketus.

“Apakah engkau menyangka jika akan saya tampar?”

“Tidak”

“Itulah takdir,” ujar sang guru menerangkan. “Takdir adalah suatu ketentuan dari Allah yang datangnya tak terduga dan manusia pun tak kuasa untuk menolaknya.”

Kisah di atas menerangkan suatu pengertian yang sederhana mengenai takdir dengan disertai contoh yang amat gamblang. Benang merah yang dapat ditarik dari salah satu kisah sufi yang tersebut di atas itu adalah, takdir bersifat mutlak. Bahkan manusia tak pernah tahu kapan dan di mana dan akan terjadi kapan serta di mana pun ia berada. Dengan kata lain, takdir manusia sudah ditentukan sejak ia dilahirkan, jalan hidup, jodoh bahkan kematiannya- apakah ia mati dalam keadaan beriman atau kafir. Agaknya inilah yang menyebabkan kenapa ada segelintir manusia yang hanya bisa pasrah, tak mau berusaha, karena hal itu memang sudah menjadi takdirnya.

Tetapi banyak pula yang berlaku sebaliknya. Mereka tatap saja berusaha. Dan apa pun hasilnya, itu adalah takdir Allah.

Secara harfiah, takdir memiliki arti ukuran, batas, ketetapan atau ketentuan. Apa pun yang dimaksud dengannya adalah suatu ketetapan Allah SWT yang berlaku pada setiap makhluk-NYA (Syamsuddin Adz Dzahabi : 1987), dan sebagaimana yang difirmankan Allah SWT dalam surat Al Oamar ayat 49. Segala sesuatu itu Kami ciptakan dengan memakai takdir (ukuran). Dengan begitu semakin jelas, takdir adalah merupakan ketetapan Allah yang bersifat mutlak kepada setiap makhlukNYA tanpa bisa berubah.

Dan apa yang dilakukan oleh para Sufi di dalam menyikapi takdir? Jawabnya pun tegas, berserah diri kepada Allah atau tawakal. Abdul Oosim Abdul Karim ibn Hawain Ousyair mengatakan: Ketahuilah, tawakal. itu letaknya di dalam hati, perbuatan anggota tidaklah bertentangan tawakal hati, namun sesudah tertanam keyakinan yang kokoh kuat bahwa takdir itu adalah di tangan Allah, maka, kalau ia menghadapi kesulitan ia berkeyakinan bahwa itu adalah takdir Allah, dan apabila terjadi hal yang menggembirakan itupun juga dengan karunia yang telah diberikan Allah. (Thowil Akhyar : 1992).

Dalam salah satu hadits juga dikisahkan salah seorang sahabat Nabi Muhammad SAW membiarkan untanya di depan mesjid tanpa diikat di tiang pancang. Lalu Nabi pun menegurnya,

“Mengapa untamu tidak diikat?”

Orang itu menjawab: “Ya Rasul, saya bertawakal kepada Allah.”

Kembali Nabi pun mengingatkan: “Bukan begitu, ikatlah dahulu untamu barulah bertawakal.”

Kesimpulan dari peristiwa itu adalah, tawakal itu itu terjadi setelah kita berikhtiar. Atau dengan kata lain, Setelah berikhtiar, hasilnya terserah kepada Allah. Atau hasil akhir itulah yang disebut sebagai takdir dari Allah. Dengan kata lain, yang terpenting adalah proses, Bukan hasil akhir yang merupakan hak Allah.

Di dalam hadistnya Nabi Muhammad SAW menguraikan bahwa amal baik tidak menjamin seseorang masuk surga, sebaliknya, amal buruk pun tidak menyebabkan seseorang harus masuk neraka. Para sahabat pun protes. “Untuk apa kita beramal?” Beliau pun menjawab, “Beramal adalah tanda-tanda kau ditakdirkan masuk surga.”

Takdir Allah memang tidak dapat diubah, karena seluruh perjalanan hidup seseorang sudah digariskan di dalam catatan-Nya — sedang manusia hanya diberikan kekuatan untuk berikhtiar. Selain itu Allah pun menyuruh kita untuk berdoa. “Berdoalah kepada-Ku, niscaya AKU kabulkan doamu itu”. (OS. Al-Mukmin : 60).

Nabi Muhammad SAW pun bersabda, “Tidaklah seorang Muslim berdoa di muka bumi ini,melainkan Allah pasti akan mengabulkannya sebagimana yang ia pinta atau Allah memalingkan daripadanya suatu kecelakaan selama ia tidak mendoakan selama yang mengandung dosa atau memutuskan Silaturrahmi (HR. Tarmidzi). Sementara hadist yang lain menguatkan; “Tidak ada yang dapat menaangkis ketetapan Tuhan kecuali doa.” (HR. Tarmidzi)

Dalam hal ini bukan takdirnya yang berubah, karena sesungguhnya Allah telah mendesain takdir manusia yang saling berkait dan tergantung antara satu sama lain. Artinya, manusia diberi kebebasan untuk memilih jalan hidupnya sendiri. Ada suatu riwayat yang menarik untuk dicermati ketika rombongan Khalifah Umar bin Khatab pergi ke Syam. Saat itu beliau dan para pengikutnya tiba di kampung Jabiyah yang terletak di wilayah Damaskus. Kampung itu sedang diterpa penyakit tha’un yang menular dan telah memakan korban ribuan jiwa manusia. Keadaan itu membuat rombongan terpecah menjadi dua. Ada yang ingin terus karena yakin bahwa sakit, senang, hidup dan mati di bawah kekuasaan Allah tetapi ada yang berpendapat sebaliknya. Karena tak ada yang mampu memutuskan, akhirnya, mereka pun meminta pendapat Umar. Umar mengambil keputusan.”Kita kembali,tak usah menempuh bahaya.”

Abu Ubaidah yang ingin meneruskan perjalanan langsung bertanya, “Apakah kita boleh lari dari takdir Allah?”

Di sinilah terlontar jawaban yang tegas dan bijak dari Umar, “Kita lari dari satu takdir Allah kepada takdir Allah yang lain.”

Riwayat di atas menggambarkan betapa tawakal bukanlah berarti hanya berdiam diri dan pasrah menunggu takdir, tetapi tetap berikhtiar untuk mencari jalan yang terbaik. Dengan tawakal kepada Allah SWT, maka, Seseorang hamba akan merasa yakin jika ia selalu ada dalam perlindungan-Nya. Yahya bin Mu’adz berkata : Seseorang itu tawakal bilamana ia ridha dengan Allah SWT sebagai pemeliharanya (Thowil Akhyar : 1992). Dengan keyakinan seperti ini, maka, seorang hamba telah tergantung sepenuhnya kepada Allah. Ia tidak akan pernah susah, baginya yang terpenting adalah selalu berusaha dengan segenap kemampuannya. Sedang yang diberikan oleh Allah ia terima dengan lapang dada, karena ia yakin itulah yang terbaik bagi dirinya.

Inilah yang menjadi pegangan bagi para sufi dan diharapkan juga menjadi pegangan bagi seluruh umat Islam. Jadi, walau barangkali kita ditakdirkan untuk mati kafir, bukan berarti kita pasrah dan tidak berusaha mentaati perintah Allah dan Rasulnya serta tetap berdoa agar mati dalam keadaan beriman. Apalagi agama Islam diturunkan agar manusia kembali kepada fitrahnya. ©️ #KyaiPamungkas

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